Toyota 1VD-FTV into 100-series LandCruiser Engine Conversion
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Toyota 1VD-FTV Turbo-Diesel V8 into Land Cruiser 100-series Engine Conversion

Toyota's 'king off the road' LandCruiser wagon range has been getting softer and more expensive over the years. It now seems aimed at the Toorak Tractor market, and many would argue that with it's vast electronics, compulsory auto gearbox and independent front suspension that it's simply not up to the rigours of the Australian bush anymore. Then there's the price - at $90,000 for the entry-level GXL turbo-diesel, it's getting rather expensive!

Then in 2007 along came the new 70-series, complete with a 4-door wagon version, GXL spec level and a great new common-rail V8 turbo-diesel, all for under $60,000. I thought it sounded like the perfect replacement for my 100-series, until I read all the specs..... Stone-age leaf springs at the back, no ABS and no airbags. Not even on the options list. What a disappointment that Toyota would release a new model in 2007 without the basic safety features that have been standard equipment on GXL 'Cruisers for a decade or more. Features that you get on a $14,000 Yaris are not even options on the big 'Cruiser. IMHO that's just plain stupid, but that's a whole other story.

Update 8/2/10: In 2009, Toyota belatedly equipped the 70-series with driver and passenger airbags, but there's still no sign of ABS.

Update 9/11/12: In 2012, they also added Anti Lock Brakes (ABS).

So for my needs I found that nothing in the current range was suitable. The 200 is too soft and too expensive. The 70 is too agricultural and missing elementary safety features. And the Nissan Patrol, despite it's otherwise excellent specs is sorely lacking in the engine arena.

Update 2014: Yes, I must be going soft! With a growing family, combined with a gradual migration from hardcore offroad weekends towards touring, I have now sold the 105 and moved to a 200-series 'Cruiser. You can follow the build of that vehicle here.

Building the perfect LandCruiser?

I started thinking that the perfect solution would be to jam one of the new, modern V8 diesels into my 100-series (Actually an HZJ-105). I'd have the space, comfort and safety of the 100, while enjoying the great power and economy of the new engine. All for less money than buying a new 70, let alone a 200-series.

I imagine that the same conversion into an 80-series would also produce an excellent vehicle. While much of the information given on these pages may also suit an 80-series conversion, the electrical hookup and measurements would obviously be different.

Article Navigation

Table of Contents

Page 1: Conversion overview, costings and decision process.

Page 2: Specifications, Getting started.

Page 3: Mechanical, Engineering, Positioning, Mounts, Body.

Page 4: Electrical, Air Conditioning, Power Steering and Cooling

Page 5: Power, Performance, Economy and Conclusions


Article update history

2/10/09: Updated gas line connection and electric fan wiring information for the Air Conditioning.

22/10/09: Updated details about the immobiliser.

15/11/09: Added ignition barrel wiring connections.

12/12/09: Added Intercooler bonnet scoop details.

8/2/10: Added conclusions page, cooling system and airbox information.

18/8/10: Added Tunit power chip information and Aussie Desert Cooler radiator.

25/8/10: Added fuel consumption data.

9/11/12: Added a video clip of the vehicle, Added the 4WD Action article for download and updated some information throughout.

**** IMPORTANT ****

The information provided on these pages should NOT be taken as instructions. It is simply my own experience, published for the information of those interested in how I completed the conversion on my vehicle. It should be read in conjuction with obtaining independent expert advice from a qualified mechanic, auto electrician, automotive engineer and your relevant State or country motoring authority. The conversion MUST be checked and approved by an engineer prior to driving the vehicle.

Any engine conversion is potentially dangerous. Vehicles, engines and gearboxes are large and heavy. There is a high risk that a failed lifting rig, stand, ramp, weld or other failure could cause serious injury or death. This conversion must only be undertaken by someone suitably qualified, and all equipment used must be approved for the purpose by the relevant authority and used only by qualified persons and in an approved manner.

The conversion as described may not suit your abilities or circumstances, and may not be legal in your jurisdiction. Your vehicle and/or engine could vary, making the observations and measurements shown on these pages not-applicable.

If you choose to perform this or a similar conversion, you do so ENTIRELY AT YOUR OWN RISK. The author takes no responsibility for any incident, failure, loss, injury or death which occurs as a result of using any of the information provided on these pages, whether such information is later shown to be correct or not.

Once again, only attempt an engine conversion if you have the training, knowledge, skill and equipment to do so. Check with your local motoring authority, and always have an approved automotive engineer check and approve the conversion before your drive the vehicle.

Above all, be careful and make safety your first priority.

**** COPYRIGHT ****

This article including both the text and the images is protected by copyright. You may not copy and paste it or publish it anywhere in any form without permission.

If you want to let others know about the info, please link to the page. The address is http://www.australianimages.com.au/conversion

Before the Conversion

Choosing an engine

The 200 and 70-series engines are very similar, but there is more than an additional turbo to consider. Both are 4.5 litre, common-rail, intercooled turbo-diesel V8 engines. The 70's engine is a single turbo design, with 151kW and 430Nm. While the 200 series is twin turbo for over 200kW and over 600Nm.

Both can be upgraded with performance chips if desired.

I opted for the 70-series engine primarily for three reasons: Firstly, it's much easier and cheaper to get hold of. There are more of them around, and the vehicle they reside in is cheaper. The second reason is that the 200-series has a far more complex electrical system, making the conversion much more complicated. Finally, the 200-series only comes in automatic, and I wanted a manual transmission.

Any measurements given on these pages relate to the 70-series version of the engine.


Other key decisions

Gearbox:
I decided to use the 70's gearbox in place of the 100 series 'box. This decision was made due to the 70's box being considerably larger, stronger and having a lower 1st gear ratio.

Transfer Case:
Originally, I had planned to retain the 100's full-time 4WD transfer case rather than the 70's part time version. However, this wasn't possible due to the different gearbox output shaft sizes between the 100 and the 70. While I could have pulled down both transfer cases and swapped the input shaft receiver, I decided against it due to time constraints and a desire to get as much new driveline into my vehicle as possible. A key problem with going part-time though is that the 100's ABS system front wheel sensors are located in the inner hubs, not on the brake discs. So in order to retain ABS I cannot fit free-wheeling hubs, as the front inner-axles must continue to turn when driving.

Diffs:
I decided to swap the crown wheels and pinions between the 70 and the 100. I did this as the 70 has much higher diff ratios than the 100, giving greatly improved highway cruising revs. This tall gearing is overcome offroad by the lower 1st gear ratio of the 70's gearbox. I swapped the crownwheel and pinions between the centres, as I had air lockers in the 100. However, the entire diff centre carriers are interchangeable so if I didn't have lockers, I could have simply swapped the entire diff carriers between the vehicles, eliminating the expense of having the centres rebuilt.


So what else did I need, other than the engine?

Apart from the engine itself, I needed the following components from the 70-series:

  • The ancillaries: The power steering and vacuum pumps are gear driven, and so are really part of the engine. The serpentine-belt driven A/C and alternator are required, as it's not possible to use the existing ones from the 100-series.
  • The gearbox: See info above.
  • The transfer case: See info above.
  • The diff ratios: See info above.
  • The Engine Control Module (ECM): The brains behind the engine. Without it, there's no way to get the engine to operate.
  • The wiring loom: The 70-series engine has a large and complex wiring loom, electric throttle and immobiliser. It integrates with the ECM and other related computers. While it may be possible for an auto electrician to build a loom for the conversion, the easiest way is undoubtedly to integrate the 70's existing loom into the 100-series. Note that there are many vital 'modules' attached to the loom, which are required. Eg: the injector controllers and immobiliser computer/amplifier.
  • An orginal (black) ignition key from the doner 70-series.
  • The clutch master-cyliner and accumulator: The 100-series combines these two items together, which is problematic due to limited clearance between the cylinder and engine rocker-cover. The 70's cylinder is more compact due to the remote accumulator, so I swapped the units.
  • A/C gas lines between compressor/condensor and compressor/evaporator. These lines were required so new lines could be fabricated from both the 100 and 70-series lines.

I also needed:

  • I had to build a gear linkage system for the main gearlever. This was required due to the engine/gearbox placement and the location of the dash and centre-console.
  • A Ford BA Falcon electric engine fan module, with 2x Davies-Craig controllers. Required due to insufficient space between the engine and radiator to use the 70-series cooling fan.
  • Engine/Gearbox mounts: I had to move the engine and gearbox mounts on the 100-series to fit the new engine/gearbox.
  • Body lift: The new V8 sits quite high in the engine bay. I had two choices to fit it under the bonnet. Either do a 50mm body lift, or fit some sort of a bonnet bulge (like on a Falcon XR8). I decided to go with the bodylift and then use a bolt-on intercooler scoop.


Where did I get it?

There are three ways to get hold of an engine and the other 70-series parts:

1. Buy new from Toyota:

I didn't even look at the prices, but I'd be amazed if you could get away with spending under $40,000 for the parts required. The advantage of this option would be that the parts are all brand new.

2. Buy the parts from a wrecker:

I investigated this option. There are several wreckers in NSW, QLD and SA with the engine etc available for purchase. The going rate seems to be about $15,000 for the engine alone. But as you really need the wiring loom, ECM and gearbox etc it would probably cost over $20,000 for this option. You might be able to negotiate a good price on the whole lot if you try. The advantage of this option is that you get a guarantee on all the parts, but it's certainly more expensive than option #3.

3. Buy an entire vehicle from a salvage auction:

I ended up buying an entire 79-series GXL ute from the Manheim-Fowles Sydney salvage auction for $10,750. The vehicle I chose was a statutory write-off with 15,000km on the odometer and severe rollover damage. I also had to spend $2,000 for some engine parts damaged in the crash. The risk with this option is that the engine may be mechanically damaged, but for the saving I was willing to take the risk. The advantage of this option (apart from the cost), was that I knew I had everything I needed for the conversion (Engine, gearbox, diff ratios, wiring, ECM, immobiliser). Using this option, I also have many other parts from the vehicle which I can sell to help recoup the cost of the conversion. You can set up auto-email notifications at Pickles and Manheim-Fowles that will let you know if a vehicle you're looking for comes up at a salvage auction. You can then bid online at most auctions.


What did it cost?

As I write this, I still have numerous 70 and 100-series parts that I have to sell to recoup some costs, so I haven't yet worked out the final cost. But, making some assumptions here is an idea:

Total purchase costs:

70-series
10750
Engine repair parts
2500
Exchange crownwheels/pinions and rebuild
500
Misc items for linkages, mounts etc
300
Electric fans, thermostats etc
600
Misc other parts
500
Airbox and filter
400
Engineer's Certificate, RTA blue slip etc
1000
Subtotal:
$16550

From that, subtract selling the following items:

100-series 1Hz turbo-diesel engine
6000
100-series gearbox
2000
Parts recovered from 70-series
4000
Subtotal:
-$12000


Total estimated net cost of conversion: $4550.00


How long did it take?

From start to (almost) finished it took me about 6 months. This time included removing both engines and gearboxes, stripping the 70-series of all required parts, swapping the diff centres, installing of the wiring and the engine/gearbox itself. Plus designing and fabricating the linkages and mounts. I did this working 1 or 2 days on the conversion each week, and I was making a lot of it up as I went along.


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